Since 1900, the population has multiplied by 4, reaching the 8 billion mark. At the same time, our energy consumption has increased 20-fold! The problem with all this is that 80% of mankind’s energy needs are met by polluting fossil fuels, which have a direct impact on global warming. Against this backdrop, it is vital to focus on the energy challenges of tomorrow.

Feature image

Published on 17 October 2023

Tomorrow’s energy challenges

In this article:

Definition of energy transition

The energy transition is a major challenge for the 21st century. It refers to the modification of energy production, distribution and consumption systems in an area. The aim is to reduce the use of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas). In concrete terms, the energy transition aims to transform an energy system to reduce its environmental impact by relying on renewable energies.

This energy transition has three main components:

  • Transforming energy production systems: this involves moving from an energy system based on polluting fossil fuels to a renewable energy system.
  • Energy efficiency: positively improving the energy performance of energy systems
  • Energy sobriety: this involves reducing energy requirements through structural changes and a transformation of consumption patterns.

This transition is essential to future strategies for sustainable development and the fight against global warming.

The energy transition programs implemented in different countries vary according to the context. These are mainly based on the gradual replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energies. They also aim to reduce energy consumption and waste. Certain energy uses, such as the switch to electric vehicles or the development of green hydrogen, are part of this transition.

The transition to so-called renewable energies is essential. In fact, when they burn, energies such as gas, oil and coal are harmful because they release gases and dust into the air. They also accentuate the greenhouse effect and contribute significantly to the rise in the Earth’s average temperature.


The consequences of fossil fuel use

Discharge and excessive consumption of these energies have an impact on nature. The consequences are already being felt:

  • Melting ice and rising sea levels
  • Shifting vegetation zones and deserts
  • Contraction of certain diseases in new regions
  • Reaching extreme levels: droughts, cyclones, floods, etc.

These consequences also worsen air, water and biodiversity quality. The fossil fuels we use are not inexhaustible. In around 60 years’ time, gas could well run out, 50 years for oil and just over 100 years for coal.


The challenges of this energy transition

The transition from fossil fuels and polluting energies to renewable energies meets several challenges:

  • Lower CO2 emissions
  • Growing scarcity of fossil fuels
  • Lower energy consumption
  • Protecting the health of the population
  • Securing energy systems

This transition responds to today’s environmental and health challenges. The development of production systems based on renewable energies will limit greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution. Air pollution is the cause of many respiratory illnesses. Global warming is responsible for the proliferation of many bacteria.

What’s more, this transition meets an economic challenge. Reducing energy consumption means cutting energy costs. This will also limit price variations and tensions between buyer and reseller countries.

All these issues have led to commitments at European and French level, enshrined in the “Energy Transition Law for Green Growth” written in 2015, in France.


France’s Energy Transition Act

On August 17, 2015, France validated its new energy model for green growth, with no fewer than 212 articles and 970 amendments. The law and the action plans drawn up will strengthen the country’s energy independence by balancing the different sources of supply.

These texts focus on strengthening energy independence, protecting the environment, safeguarding public health and combating global warming.

This law defines medium- and long-term objectives and includes a number of major goals:

  • Reduce our consumption of fossil fuels by 30% by 2030
  • Reduce greenhouse gas emissions to contribute to the European objective of reducing emissions by 40% by 2030.
  • Halve our energy consumption by 2050 (compared with 2012)
  • Increase the share of renewable energies to 32% of final energy consumption by 2030 and to 40% of electricity production.
  • Reduce the volume of waste sent to landfill by 50% by 2050

France has also set up an action plan to contribute more effectively to the fight against global warming. For this action plan to work properly, citizens, businesses, local authorities and the State need to unite. These measures are as follows:

  • Combating fuel poverty
  • Ensure the development of clean transport (electric vehicles in particular), with the aim of installing 7 million recharging stations across the country by 2030.
  • Work on existing building stock to improve energy performance
  • Combating waste and promoting the circular economy (e.g. developing sorting in the workplace)

In this way, everyone can participate in the energy transition and save money to reduce waste.


The challenges of the future

The use of renewable and clean energies is essential to building tomorrow’s energy mix:

  • Hydraulics: transforms the mechanical energy of moving water into electricity
  • Wind turbines: electricity generated by the wind
  • Solar: photovoltaic panels convert sunlight into electricity. The sun can also heat water
  • Geothermal: the principle is based on the recovery of heat buried in the earth to produce electricity and heat through turbines.

Bioenergies are also on the list of tomorrow’s energies. They are produced from organic matter of plant origin (biomass) using solar energy. Ethanol and methane are biofuels produced by photosynthesis. It is used in particular for road transport.


Participating in the energy transition

The entire world population is concerned by this transition. Each of us can play an important role in our own way. The transition can be applied to both individuals and businesses.


Taking action

Businesses are the most appropriate players for moving towards greener growth. There are a number of ways in which they can help themselves make the transition.

In order to reduce their carbon footprint, companies need to focus on improvements that can be made during operations. This enables the company to assess its carbon footprint and identify areas for improvement to ensure a smooth energy transition.


Acting as an individual

There are several ways to participate in this energy transition. As a first step, you can reduce your household energy consumption. To achieve this, we can take small steps on a daily basis, such as switching off or putting on standby all electrical appliances at night, replacing light bulbs with LEDs, and so on. These eco-actions are within everyone’s reach. You can also opt for green energy offers.

Government grants can help you reduce your carbon footprint. In France, depending on the type of work carried out, you can obtain compensation proportional to household income, called ” MaPrimeRénov ‘”.


Today, it’s impossible to do without energy – it’s part of our daily lives. Energy is considered to be the foundation of the world’s economic activities. Energy needs are growing every year. Most of them are fossil fuels that pollute and will eventually run out. Their impact also has consequences for the environment and human beings. The implementation of an energy transition is more than necessary to anticipate the depletion of fossil fuels and protect the environment. Today’s population must change its consumption patterns, even on a small scale, and move towards greener energy.


To reduce your carbon footprint and save money, Nexelec offers a wide range of sensors capable of analyzing and measuring temperature and humidity, brightness and presence. The data collected will enable you to anticipate heating periods, manage room lighting and indoor temperatures.